Industry from Past to Today; The Importance of Human Resources in Industry
Industry 1.0 (1700’ s- Water power from devices to machines) It has been a revolution for the usage of mechanical production and accepted as a start for industrialization in the whole world.
The first mechanical equipments which utilize from water power has invented, steam power has started to be used more and various tools has developed with the usage of machines which are stronger than human power.
This period was known as the textile- weighted industrial revolution which starts with the invention of energy saving steam engine in England under the leadership of James Watt in the latest 1700’ s.
Industry 2.0 (1900’ s- Electric power in mass production) This period has first started with the mass production era which has first applied in the automobile factory of Henry Ford and adopted prevelantly with the effects of policies especially after the Second World War. This cycle was called Fordism. Productions in this period, were made with the existence of the floating band system. Because of the fact that; condensation in competition and diversification in consumer preferences, complicated the unit die production, this system has collapsed.
A meat plant is known to ride the first motorcycle which runs up with electrical energy and serialization of it is made.
Ford; has obtained an incredible sales chart by decreasing the price of its’ T model car from 850 dollars to 375 dollars in a very short time and the developments in mass production bands can be indicated as the determinants for this sales success of Henry Ford. On the other side, big changes which settle the world’s destiny, were seen with the invention of alternating current and development of AC motor.
In fact, 2.0 has changed the world. The source of energy has changed but the need for it has still been continuing... In order to support this, there was also a need for the human factor.
Industry 3.0 (1970’ s- Post-Fordism, Flexible and Programable Production) The programable machines which were first developed in 1968, became the preparers of 3rd industrial revolution. The production type has changed and Fordism has yielded to Post- Fordism along with this period. Moreover, the numbers of employees increased incrementally. Working hours became flexible. Making calculations became essential with the usage of computers and robots in the production systems. Thus, automatisation was provided with the electronic and information technologies of the production processes.
As a result of the rapid electronic development in the mid 1970’s, 3.0 has started with the production vehicles which are called PLC.
Robots which provide automatisation and microprocessors which are known as primitive computers were invented in this period. Both production and consumption have massively increased and luxurious consumption have become accessible for everyone. (Human Resources became a requirement in this period.)
Low-cost labour, reverse engineering, researching and learning in the course of production are all relevant in this period. Germany, which is underdevelopped against China Industry, started an opposite attack in EU and 4.0 is accompanied by this issue...
Ind. 4.0 (Nowadays- Internet Of Things/ Cyber- Physical Systems) It comprises the complex structures which machines can communicate with other machines and make production via internet in the most general sense. Human resources, made different deparments and working people essential for the factories.
In this period, the communication power make every kind of electronical vehicle possible to be in communication with each other from the produced product to environment.
This approach which started to be adopted in USA in 2010, make into a government policy in Germany in 2012.
The German Federal Government, invested in future by allocating a fund about 200 billion Euro for the next 10- 15 years within the Future Projects. Besides, the studies of hardware products and process development are going to be applied in the developed countries and competitive production which is going to be dominant in Europe and America again.
Moreover, unmanned factories will step in with artificial intelligence, products will be produced untouched by human hands and there won’t be a need for light in the factories which no one works as well.
Within the scope of this development, many differences about natural selection and humanity evolution will be faced with in the sense of Human Resources. Humanity will be divided into two types; while some people are intelligent, rich, cultured, some people will be the ones who waste their potentials.
Intelligent and qualified working people will be needed in Ind. 4.0 and many blue-collar workers will be dismissed because of the fact that; the human factor won’t be used in production.
New jobs and titles will arise with diversification of the service industry.
Unemployment insurance and such payments will lead price and vested benefits to acquire utterly different dimensions.
Perfections, career and ability management will also acquire a new dimension and the standards of perfections will be peaking.
Home Office programs will be at the center of our lives with the big data and cloud technology.
Thereafter, interviews will be online, robots will be able to employ and the interviews will be made without any mistakes via big data.
And motivation management will be the most valuable factor in Human Resources. Thus, the perception of people will also change about the duty of this department; every one is going to realise that it is not such a department which only pays salaries of the employees...
In 4.0, the concepts of production and productivity are going to be directly proportional with the innovation capacity of companies. People are required to show their intellectual background instead of using muscle force as the past times. Because of these emerging developments, Human Resources is primarily the most difficult factor in Industry 4.0.
Turkey haven’t moved to the automatisation and informatics system yet. The added value which technological industry enterprises in mid and high levels is 25 percent of the total added value. This can be shown as the reason of why our country haven’t moved the system yet.
Therefore, Turkey should be structured as prioritizing to advanced technology production and it should create sustainable policies about this issue.
Industry 4.0, is a golden opportunity for qualified labor force. And skilled labour will be a must with qualified employees in this case.
Industry 4.0 is an industry revolution which uses qualified labor force and encourage as principle. Training qualified employees are going to be our biggest human resources investment for the future.
Discussion, Active Listening and Flexibility which are the perfections of human resources will lose their importance and emotional intelligence will occur. Therefore, white collar workers will be at the forefront in comparison with the blue collar workers.
As a country and company, we have to take our places in this competition by developing ourselves technologically in order not to keep behind from others.