First of all; I would like to begin my words with a Turkish song which emphasizes the hot weathers which is named ‘ SICAK, COK SICAK ‘ As we all know, summer came a little bit late this year. We had rainy and abundant spring times. Moreover, we constantly complained about the never- ending cold temperatures until the beginning of July. But now everywhere is burning real hot. Record temperatures are being measured on each side. Lots of warnings to our citizens are made,announcements about the times that they should be outside are also made visually such as news, computers, television etc. So, everything is okay until now, but I have a question for you; what is going to happen to our farm animals?
The amount of the modern establishments in our country are increasing day by day. Nevertheless, the majority is still the traditional one. Because of the wrong structure of the shelters, business directions, administrative mistakes and unconscious farming methods, all of our animals are in a heat stress and in this case various loses become possible. The most important thing in cattle breeding is protecting the animals from hot temperatures. Because the body temperatures of the cows show variability. This means that their body temperatures are higher than people.
If we begin to mention about ourselves again, what do we do in these sweaty weathers as people? A freezing lemonade or a watermelon, an enjoyable day that can be passed by the sea or in the highlands, spending a pleasant day by working in the air- conditioned environments, a great time in the shower, wearing various clothes that is going to reflect the sunshine and such refreshing activities can be mentioned for us. So as looking at the previous examples, we; as people have various solutions to get rid of the heat. However, our animals are not like us. We are aware of this reality, don’ t we? They always continue their life by being dependent to us. They can not satisfy any of their needs on their own. Or they can not find any solution about getting rid of the heat without us. Because of these reasons, it is required to take actions and produce solutions according to the structure of our company. So, what do you think about the definition of the heat stress? Why is it so important? How do we avoid feeling this stress?
A heat stress means the reactions against the problems that may occur about the environmental temperatures and humidity efficiency levels while trying to sustain their lives. This situation which occurs in summer times, leads to some problems such as decreasing in profitability, some illnesses and metabolic disorders. Heat stress begins when the environmental heat degree increases from 24 to 27 for the cows. These are the indications;
The amount of respiration increases. (80)
Body temperature increases. (>39.1 degree)
Water consumption increases.
Excessive sweating begins.
Feed consumption decrease. (forage)
Milk efficiency decreases.
The dynamism decreases.
Standing time lengthens.
Fresh places of the shelters become more crowded.
Acidosis take its’ shape according to the low roughage.
Rises can be seen for Mastitis cases according to the immune system of the cows.
Some provisions should be made to be able to deal with the heat stress.
Provisions That Are Going To Be Made For The Shelters
The materials that are being used in the roof and the under-beam clearance of the establishments have a high importance for the shelters. The roof changes according to the climate and is nearly 3.5- 4 meters. The chimney should be 50- 60 cm. Additionally, being attentive is a must here to be able to understand the fact that if the material that are used reflects the sunshine or not. Another material that can be used is the sandwich panel which is always more expensive than the previous one.
The usage of the fans which provide circulation for the establishments is going to help animals feel comfortable. Moreover, steaming and fogging systems can be used with fans. Especially these have crucial importance for decreasing stress before milking. Hyper-salivation of the cows is provided by the encouragement for rumination in a fresh environment. The salivary has a buffer effect.
The amount and the clearance of the indoor drinkers are very important. The drinkers are required to be clear, the water in the drinker should be clear and both of these must be under the shadow. The amount of the drinkers should be calculated correctly.
Arbors can be made with simple preventions in the places to protect our animals against heat temperatures except shelters. By this way freshness is going to be provided
The Precautions That Should Take For Feeding
The content of the total mixed ration has high importance in heating seasons. Milk cows prefer feeds which don’ t make them tired. Roughages are preferred to consume less than other feed groups. Rich in water and concentrate feeds are mostly preferred. At this point, a handicap can be seen. If the roughage consumption is low and if the concentrate feed consumption is high, then the rumen ph rapidly decreases, acidity increases and rumen acidosis disease appears. Softness in the fertilizer, anorexia, decrease of milk fat, problems in the feet are the symptoms of the acidosis disease. Because of these things that are mentioned above, content of the total mixed ration must be well adjusted. Clover, vetch and such roughages that our animals will be glad to consume should be used in total mixed ration. Additionally, the size of the particules shouldn’ t be smaller than 5 cm.
Fresh feeds should be given to the animals in this period. Especially, rich in water feeds’ consumption amount should be firstly calculated, then given according to the number of animals; otherwise these feeds can putrefy. The corn silage, the product silage, the beer pulp, the sugar beet pulp and such rich in water raw materials easily become moldy and putrefy in long standing situations. In some corporations early- prepared feeds are being awaited in the forage wagons and this causes some possible problems about feeding, as a result; our animals do not consume fondly.
Another precaution is increasing the feeding frequency. Especially because of the incalculable total mixed rations; animals starve, can not be able to meet their feed needs and they stress. Feeders should often be controlled and supplements should be made with roughages.
Additionally to these, there is another precaution that can be mentioned. It is to feed and milk in the cool hours. Especially, the times between 11:00- 16:00 shouldn’ t be the times for main feeding because of the high temperature.
Deductions can be seen in the high levels of potassium and salivary bicarbonate level with excessive sweating in dairy cows. Except this; carefully handling sodium and chlorine levels for the animals in heat stress action is known as important minerals for maintaining the body’ s acid- base balance. For these reasons, milk production occurs in the summer heat in the ratio of potassium and sodium levels for balanced animal improvement.
By- pass oil can be added to the rations because of the fact that roughage consumption is going to be low in summer.
Whatever we do to protect animals from the heat stress, % 100 protection will never be possible to mentioned. The proactions that are written above, are going to provide us to continue our way with a minimal loss. Let’ s not forget that; the comfort of the animals affects our profitability in the first degree. Every investment that are made, is going to be to our advantage.