Pasture Breeding In Turkey
The most economic type of livestock breeding is, feed supported pasture breeding. Feed is the main factor which affects price and animal efficiency. Approximately 70- 80 percent of the cattle stock consist of feeds. Pasture stock is going to provide a decrease in this percentage of feed entrance.
For increasing the amount of pasture utilization;
- Dressing and composting rank pastures,
- The pasture should be cleaned from weeds,
- Avoiding attrition by bringing pastures into use rotationally,
- A more durable seed should be used for a more quality drought.
Animals survive by satisfying their food requirement from fodders. They consume live weights from autumn until they are put out to grass in the following year. Moreover, animals dispend the whole nourishment that they get to crop because of the fact that; medows and ranges are rank in most of the places. They are fed with low incidence of concentrate feeds (barley, bran) and high incidence of fooder in winter. In this breeding type, there are some primary factors that affect efficiency decrease such as energy, protein, mineral and vitamin flaws. Nutrition diseases, which occur because of nourishment with unquality feeds arise in winter and start to intensify in the first month of spring. Their feeding time is too short that just refers to the ripening period. Subjection to half- open or open cattle rearing of our native animals gain ground well because of the fact that it decreases the feed cost to minimum. Supporting animals with protein sources which are mixed with balanced minerals leads them to gain live weight faster in the pasture period.
Soybean, sunflower and cottonseed oil meal are moliminous raw materials in order to meet the protein deficit of feeds which will be given in the evenings. Under the circumstances, animals gain live weight more than before. In livestock breeding, the businesses which prepare feeds by themselves, increase their profit margin substantially. A mineral mix doesn’ t highly affect the cost and it requires to be suitable for healthy development and live weight acquisition.
Vegetation is required to be used in due form of soil in order to benefit from pasture fields efficiently. Because of this reason, getting the highest efficiency from livestock animals is possible with considering pasture amenajman. Grazing according to capacity in suitable seasons and uniformly distributing pastures on animals are required for a proper usage.
The Points To Consider In Fattening
Grazing Pastures In Suitable Seasons: Pasture plants should be grazed by animals when they grow to maturity enough for grazing. The most sensitive period of plants is mostly spring and autumn seasons they start to grow again or get harm. Critical period is the time between onset of growth and onset of re-warehousing of surplus nutrients. The plants are physically weak in this process and they easily get hurt from cold, drought and grazing. If the plants are grazed by animals, many of them can die and the pasture can get spoilt. Besides, the ones which pass over this critical period is named ‘ Grazing Maturity ‘ and grazing shouldn’ t be made before. Grazing maturity usually become acceptable when the heights of tall plants reach to 20 cm, the middle- sized ones to 15 cm and the short ones to 10 cm.
Grazing Pastures Within The Capacity: The pasture plants are suffered from overcapacity pastures while grazing. This consideration is defined as; ‘ The maximum amount of grazed animals without harming vegetation, soil and other sources. Normal developments of the root and the bulk are interrupted and feed consumption is decreased because of bottom grazing of plants depending upon the surplus amount of animals.
Uniform Grazing: Equally grazing is required for suitable pasture feeding and the most applicable grazing system is the one which is made intermittently at this point.
Intermittent Grazing: In this grazing type, the grazing capacity of pasture branches into 6 proportions which are all equal to each other and these proportions should be grazed sequently. Relaxation needs of the plants specify grazing times of each proportion. Pasture plants are leaved to rest for 3- 4 weeks after grazing. This period is very beneficial for each of the proportions to rest.
Grazing Animals Suitable To The Feed Types: Grazing pastures with animal species solely, decreases the pasture efficiency. By considering feed preferences of the animals, animal types are decided for them to be able to graze more convenient. For example; while sheep deal with the short cereal pastures, horses and cattle deal with the legume ones and goats deal with the bush and tree types. In addition to the main principles for the regular usage of medows and ranges, the breeding methods such as clearing weeds and overfertilizing irrigation and pastures can be implemented.