Shelter Planning And Animal Selection In Breeding Facilities
Cattle breeding is a business unit which aims to provide maximum live weight increase with the most relevant cost. The success of a business unit, depends on suitable material selection, arranging the qualities of shelters by depending upon the satisfiability factor for the needs of animals, good maintenance and feeding practices and workableness of the suitable protection treatment programmes. The most important factors which specify frame cost are the fattening periods and rotational speeds of businesses.
- The dry underlay field per animal should be minimum 1 m2 for each 100 kg live weight. If the average live weight of feeder cattle is accepted to be 400 kg, then the wandering field should be two times more than the average rate.
- Shelters should be able to protect the animals from wind. Accordingly, air conditioning is required to be applied.
- Minimum underbeam clearance should be designed according to the climate structure. Height should especially be sufficient and attics should be cool and airy enough.
- It is very important to provide an at least 25 cm feeder area per animal in the free systems. Thus, there won’t be any problems about competition and feed accessibility.
- Dry underlays are very important especially for the young animals and the ones who have just brought to farm.
- Paddocks shouldn’t be very crowded (at most 20- 25 cattle) for sustainability of the management applications, competition and animal supply. The animals in paddocks should be homogeneous as far as possible. It is important them not to be sheltered with different live weights and ages. Adaptation of the animal to a social environment, is the most important factor to be considered. Therefore, its’ paddock shouldn’t be changed unless social hierarchy is required.
- The animals which have growth deficiency, breathing problems and which are exposed to intensified interference infestation shouldn’t be preferred.
- Respiratory tract diseases are the most important problems in animal selection. In order to avoid these, the animals which are weak, which have nose dryness and serous and mucous nasal draining problems, shouldn’t be sheltered.
- Animals shouldn’t be selected from the regions in which food and mouth disease is common and due biosafety precautions should be taken against these kind of circumstances.
- Animals should be selected from producers and farms as far as possible. Therefore, it will be avoided them to get stressed and face with pathogen.
- Vaccination and antibiotic applications should be made 3- 4 weeks before the delivery date. Under infeasible circumstances, these applications should be made during quarantine in the businesses.
- Shipping shouldn’t be made for long hours.
- The ration amounts which are consumed in businesses at the last one week, should be known for feed and fattening crossings.