The Ration Regulations In Terms Of Biological Functions
Different nutrition sources, have distinctive effects upon the growth of poultries, fertility, egg production, immunity and various environmental stress factors.
Fertility is directly affected from nutrition. If there are any explicit nutrition losses, egg production will also be affected negatively from this circumstance. In addition to this; gathering and storing eggs are also important in this process. Control of live weight should be the first management strategy under the negative conditions such as decreases in the rate of fertility and peak point of the production.
- Nutrition and Egg Production
The protein level in diet, is determinant for egg production and weight. It also has similar effects upon the egg performance. Oestrogen metobolism is being thought to lead increases in egg width and weight and provide albumin in egg yolk to take its’ shape.
Other nutrition sources such as fiber, can affect egg fermentation and the resultant differences in fiber sources influence egg yolk. A sanguine color is observed in corn additive and the high level of xanthophyl has a primer effect for coloration of egg yolk.
Nutrition is also essential for the configuration of eggshell. At this point; it should be emphasized that the calcium concentration in ration is the most important factor to consider.
A great deal of epidemics cause from the changes in microbial agents for poultries. Distinctive nutrition programmes should be organized for each of them according to the existing conditions. Protein additives in ration should be reduced in the times when coccidiosis is frequent. If protein is high, it means that the activity of trypsin enzyme in intestine will increase rapidly and this circumstance accelerates oscillation of the oocyst. As a result of the oscillation; poultries become less sensitive to vaccination.
Another factor for reducing the effects of feed intake and availability upon heat stress is the feeding time. Feeding should be made in the early morning hours or late night hours. Broilers are more sensitive to the feeding time than layer hens. Many problems are going to be solved with the proper regulation of feeding time.
- Adaptation to High Altitude
Antioxidants such as Vitamin E, should be added to the ration for high altitude layer hens. The reduced partial oxygen pressure regulates stress factors which cause from oxidative pressure such as increasing ultra- violet light and metabolism.
Vitamins influence the hemopoietic organs and erythropoiesis. As a result of this influence; some changes are seen in blood values and adaptation to high altitude is provided.
As B vitamins such as tiamin, riboflavin and niacin contribute to the performance development with energy oscillation; they also balance low energy intake. Meanwhile, sufficient addition of iron increases the transportation capacity of oxygen and the usage by cells. Absorption and availability of the iron, reduce with the unconscious usage of grains and legumes in feeding. Animal protein sources should be minimum 80 mg and energy sources should be arranged to be in optimal conditions.