Triticale was bred from wheat x rye hybrid. In the hybridization of triticale, wheat is used as female plant and rye is used as male plant. Triticale has high yield potential under the field circumstances in which wheat and barley cannot be cultivated in an efficient and quality manner.As grain product, triticale is mainly used for animal feeding and sometimes it is also cultivated for roughage production and grazing. Feed quality of its grain is of equal quality with corn, wheat and barley.
Triticale varieties with the production permit of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs in Turkey and the Institute names where the seeds can be provided are listed below:
Tatlıcak-97 was developed by Bahri Dağdaş International Winter Grain Research Centre, Konya and its production permit was obtained; it is for winter and facultative.
Melez-2001 was developed by Bahri Dağdaş International Winter Grain Research Centre, Konya and its production permit was obtained; it is for winter and facultative.
Karma-2000 was developed by Anadolu Agricultural Research Institute, Eskişehir and its production permit was obtained; it is for winter and facultative.
Presto was developed by Anadolu Agricultural Research Institute, Eskişehir and its production permit was obtained; it is for winter and facultative.
Tacettinbey was developed by Çukurova University Faculty of Agriculture, Adana and its production permit was obtained; it is for summer and suitable for Mediterranean and Aegean coastal zone.
Properties of Triticale Plant:
Triticale, with its properties passed from its durum male parent, adapts well to barren agricultural areas receiving inadequate rainfall and it yields a higher grain crop per unit area compared to other cereals.
- In salty agricultural areas,
- In lands with excess boron, i.e. toxicity,
- In fields which are deficient in nutrients such as molybdenum, zinc, etc.,
- In problematic agricultural areas where certain diseases are observed, it gives better results than wheat and barley.
- In such problematic areas, while wheat and barley deliver 200-250 kg/da grain yield, 400 to 500 kg/da grain yield is obtained from triticale.
- As animal feed, it has a significant potential in kernel, roughage production.
- Triticale can be planted with the aim of grazing.
- Kernel is of amber colour, middle size and floury structure.
- Its digestible protein and lysine amount is higher than that of wheat and barley.
- Protein ratio in kernel is 12-14%,
- It ripens for harvest earlier,
- It does not spill kernels,
- Its blending capability is good,
- Its tolerance to winter and barren conditions is good.
- It is tolerant to leaf diseases under field conditions.
Although triticale grows under any soil conditions, it is especially more fertile than wheat and barley under poor conditions. In triticale cultivation, soil preparation is similar to that of wheat plant. A superficially handled seed bed of 10-12 cm depth is prepared. Triticale can be planted in the inner regions of Anatolia and in Thrace in October and in Mediterranean-Aegean coastal zone and South Anatolia in November and December. Approx. 20 kg seed is sufficient per decare. It can be planted into 5-6 cm depth by means of a normal cereal drill.
The most correct fertilization recommendation for triticale cultivation can be made according to soil analysis results. As a general fertilization recommendation, nitrogen of 12 kg/da in dry conditions and of 14 kg/da in wet conditions is sufficient when 600 kg and more grain yield is aimed.
Fertilizer Doses to be used in Dry and Wet Conditions for Triticale Cultivation:
Different options for the forms and doses of the fertilizers that can be applied in dry and wet conditions to achieve a sufficient and balanced fertilization for triticale cultivation is provided in the Chart below.
Some options for the forms and doses of the fertilizers that can be applied to the soil in dry and wet conditions for triticale cultivation
Weed Prevention in Triticale Cultivation:
It is considerably important that the weed prevention in triticale cultivation is performed in the earlier phase when the weeds have 2-4 leaves and this application ensures 20-30% higher yield.
Weed prevention in triticale cultivation is performed through cultural measures and chemical methods as in the wheat cultivation. In weed control through chemical method, the herbicides to be selected according to the weeds in the field can be applied at the end of October or after germination, in spring during the 2-4 leaf-phase of the weeds.
Harvest and Storage:
Triticale can be harvested with a combine harvester adjusted for wheat harvest. When the plants ripen for harvest, they are harvested from normal height as wheat after 10.00 AM when the dew is disappeared. It is harvested nearly in the same period with wheat. It is necessary for a safe storage that the humidity of the grains is below 12% in the harvest. As for all cereals, product storages should be kept clean, the temperature in the storage should be below 28 oC and product humidity should be below 12%.